PERIOD OF POPULARITY: 1895 – 1940 (mostly 1920s, prior to the Great Depression)
INTRODUCTION TO REVIVAL STYLES: Each revival style identifies specifically with an architecture of an earlier time and place, especially those related to early American or European precedents. Several popular revival styles are included on this blog, though other, less popular revival styles also appeared. To classify this grouping of architectural styles presents a challenge, as one could argue that many earlier Victorian styles were similarly revivalist. In fact, one publication includes several revival styles within the larger category of Victorian architecture (Cunliffe, et. al. 2010). The concept of “period styles” has also been adopted by some writers (including this one), though it was an early 20th century term used by non-professionals to romanticize the past. On the flip side are the architectural historians who prefer the more academic “Age of eclecticism” or “Eclectic Era,” which is an important concept to provide historical context here. The Eclectic Era, however, includes both revival and early modern styles that competed ideologically and appeared nearly simultaneously before the Great Depression. For purposes here, then, “revival styles” seems most appropriate, adapted widely across America for use in middle-class homes, wealthy country houses, commercial buildings, early skyscrapers, and civic buildings. Though overlapping with the more picturesque Victorian era, these styles largely gained popularity during the first two decades of the 20th century and heavily influenced our residential and commercial landscapes.
During this time (mostly between 1900 and 1929), accuracy of styles became important once again, unlike Queen Anne style, which borrowed from a variety of sources. Most Important, revival styles look to the past for inspiration. The trend toward revivalist architecture gained momentum from the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, the Columbian Exposition, where historical interpretations of European styles were encouraged. Simultaneous to the rise of revivalist architecture, the modern era saw its beginnings with architects who were instead looking to the future, not to the past, with more progressive, modernist styles. Thus defines the Eclectic Movement of the early 20th century, which consisted of a simultaneous and perhaps competing interest in both modern and historic architectural traditions. This variety, or eclecticism, provided for one of the most diverse and colorful periods for architecture and urban design in American history, when almost anyone with at least a middle-class income could choose from one of a dozen or more styles for their home.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND FEATURES: The Colonial Revival style was initially inspired by the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial, essentially America’s first-ever World’s Fair. The event sparked a new interest in the American colonial past, in contrast to earlier decades when colonial architecture had been dismissed as antiquated or obsolete. Architects were studying colonial styles throughout New England by the 1890’s. A decade later, colonial revival emerged as a dominant style for domestic buildings nationwide and remained popular up through World War II. Earlier Georgian and Adam styles provided the backbone for revival ideas, with a secondary influence of Dutch Colonial (with its characteristic dual-pitched, Gambrel roof). The Colonial Revival style is sometimes referred to as Neo-Georgian, due to its striking resemblance to the earlier Georgian and federal styles.
For More Photos of Colonial Revival on Flickr, Click Here.